On soil and transplant plants.
Under natural conditions the root system of plants is a large space. When potting plants forced to develop its root system in soil of a small volume. Therefore, this soil, as a rule, should be particularly nutritious. One of the conditions of growing houseplants is the ability to make the necessary earthen mixture. Potted plants do not grow on the same soil alkaline or acid reaction. Some plants require slightly acidic soil, others prefer acidic soil, and the third grow well in slightly alkaline, neutral or slightly acid soils, only the fourth in alkaline soils.
There are plants that require lime in the soil in large quantities (heliotrope, calceolaria). On the contrary, azaleas, heather, camellias excess of lime works extremely unfavorable. For young plants, as a rule, prepare the soil mixture is lighter than the old ones. The soil mixture should meet the following conditions: it must contain nutrients in amounts necessary for the plants, not to detain any excess water to pass air to the roots, have the acidity required for the plant; be decontaminated from pests and diseases. For growing houseplants use turf, leaves, manure, humus and peat land, and must have a clean river sand, may need to moss (sphagnum), and bark.
Turf ground with the clay soil is to heavy land, leaf, sod with sandy soils and manure-humous - to the lungs. Turf ground is very nutritious. It is obtained from pereprevaniya sliced â€‹â€‹layers of sod, stacked in a pile, grass to grass, with layers of cow dung. Usually pereprevaniya turf rather than one year. (PH 5-6) turf ground used in combination with other earth and sand. Lightweight turf ground can be improved by adding to her clay, and heavy - the addition of sand.
Leaf ground in ground mixtures plays the role of baking powder. This land is obtained from pereprevaniya collected in a pile in the fall and spring, the old leaves (except oak and chestnut), which periodically perlopachivayut and watered. To obtain sufficient leaf land 1-2 years. This land is not as nutritious as turf, but is looser. (PH 5-6) humous soil rich in nutrients. It turns out she spent the greenhouse manure as a result of its expansion in the next 2-3 years. (PH about 8) peat land, which differs friability and easily applied to improve other lands on peat mixes easily to provide a balanced mineral nutrition of plants.
It turns out she is from the peat, decomposed into a period of not less than one year. Peat take veohovoy or dark transition (pH 3,5-5,5), should not take fine-lowland peat (pH 6 and above). Peat in piles pour slurry is added to it manure and lime. On the quality of selected peat depends on how good is the soil mixture. On sale is a special substrate "Violet", consisting of peat with mineral additives. In its pure form, the substrate used for cultivation of violets or Saintpaulia, and as toryanoy additives to the soil for any other plant. Peat soil is acidic, this land is especially needed for growing hydrangeas, azaleas, camellias and rhododendrons, require acidic soils. Peat soil is good for planting seeds and cuttings of plants. Peat land should not be overdry.
Coniferous earth - is the bottom layer of the litter of coniferous forests, better pine. This land is different porosity, reduction of nutrients and acid reaction (pH 4-5). Cora - softwood (pine, larch, spruce) is used as a leavening agent in soil mixtures as a basis for epiphytic plants. The bark is cut and well-milled. (PH 4-4,5) moss (sphagnum) gives the ground looseness, lightness and absorbability. Moss previously dried and finely rubbed. The moss is also used for lining barrels of plants, forming aerial roots, and cover the pot and the earth, so they do not dry out. Moss is one of the main components of the mixture posvennoy for epiphytic plants. (PH about 4). River coarse sand makes soil mixtures friability and porosity. For use in soil mixes are taking the biggest river sand, washed it well and pour over boiling water.
In preparation for transplanting plants need to first determine whether a plant needs transplanting. Used as transplant in the case where an earthen room perfectly braid and penetrated the roots so that was formed as it felt, and if the roots rot, and when acidified soil in the pot, though the earthen ball and not criss-crossing back and if there are signs of a total feebleness plants, indicating depletion of the earth or roots of plants broke through the downspout hole (as shown). The latter indicates that the capacity was too narrow.
To determine the need for strong political transplantation plant knock out pot. Plant upset on the right hand with his left hand, passing the stalks between your fingers and remove the pot. If the pot is not removed, try to knock on it. If during inspection it turns out that a transplant is needed, the ground component tightly put back into the pot.
By the number of replaceable ground distinguish the following types of transplants:
Full transplant - when removing all the old ground and the roots completely exposed, it is done with the full unsuitability of land and the loss of its all nutrients. (Transplanting palms, figs, asparagusovi etc.) Part transplant - when larger or smaller portion of road coma remains in the roots. Update the upper layer of the earth - when the land is replaced by humus ground, because when watering is leaching nutrients from the upper layer.
Transshipment of Plants - receiving close to the transplant, with the difference that the clod of earth should remain whole, and the plant is transplanted into a larger pot. This method is suitable for young herbaceous, fast-growing plant that passes for spring-summer period, several times. Transshipment in contrast to the complete transfer does not cause retardation of plant growth. The young plants do not need to prevent the formation voylokoobraznogo layer of roots, and carry out handling when the roots have not yet completed the entire pot. Transshipment is also applied to plants intolerant of transplantation because of possible damage to the roots.
Transplantation is usually carried out in the spring from March to May. Tender plants are transplanted later. Plants that bloom in the spring of transplanted after flowering. If the transplanted plants at the time of flowering or the formation of buds, then it will reset and the flowers and buds. Summer after the spring bloom transplanted conifers. Plants that were transplanted into a warm room later than those that were in the cool. Bulbous transplant after a period of rest .. When transplanting plants, after the plant is removed from the pot, gently with your hands or a stick to clean off korneyzemlyu and untangle the roots entwined, trying not to hurt them. Root felt removed with a sharp knife. Also remove all the rotten roots, if any. Cuts thick, juicy roots sprinkled with powdered charcoal to prevent rotting.
At the bottom of the pot arrange good drainage: the downspout hole putting one or a few shards gobom up, top poured concrete block or broken red kerpich, preferably on two fingers in height. Good drainage is not interrupted to any plant, even if somewhere says that the plant does not need to drain, do not be lazy and do All the same drainage. Top covered with soil drainage, which added bits of charcoal, and down the plant, so that the root collar was at the edges of the dish or just below, but not covered with earth.
The gaps between the pot and the roots covered with earth, which pushed a stick. Tapping the pot on the table, also helps keep the land closer to the pot. Then the thumb or fingers press down the earth in a pot, a clod of earth between the old and the walls of the pot, otherwise unconsolidated loose soil will be too fast flowing water in irrigation, not wetting the roots of the earth. When transplanting plants with thick or malorazvetvlennymi roots are not recommended to cut, because these roots not tolerate pruning and damage. Acacia, some conifers, orchids, bulbs and many other plants with weak root system can not tolerate pruning the roots. Plants such as cyclamen, Chlorophytum and hedihium, require careful treatment for the transplant.
The whole procedure of transplantation must not stretch for a long time, since excavated from a pot plant roots quickly dry out and become injured. In general, to transplant better prepare in advance - to choose the right tool, pick and process the pots, water for irrigation, charcoal, drainage, tying sticks for plants, rooting stimulator, a spoon for nasypaniya land, scissors, etc., ie all that may need to avoid rushing around the apartment or house in the process of transplanting, when all hands in the earth, and you have proved to be a dull knife. Unfollow water the plants in hot weather. When transplanting plants well watered and sprayed. But in the next few days (a week or two) watering limits. (Cacti after transplantation does not watered 6-7 days.) In a post-transplant pritenyayut plant and protect from drafts.
If, during the transplantation were found decayed roots, then they should be removed with a knife, an old earth with the roots thoroughly shake oneself, the roots washed with water. Slices sprinkled with charcoal, and the plant is planted in fresh soil. If you remove most of the roots, the plant is transplanted into a pot smaller than before. These plants, whose roots were rotten, very carefully watered after transplanting.