Plants need water.
Plants need water on the state of the plant and external conditions (heat, humidity, soil and air, the light intensity, etc.) Land in pots should be in moderately moist. We can not allow abrupt transitions from a lack of moisture in its excess. This means that watering should be regular and uniform. Plants need water is determined by their specific characteristics: above-ground structure of the capacity of the root system, etc. For example, plants with succulent, fleshy leaves (such as agave, aloe, etc.) require less water than plants with large leaves, which sometimes require watering twice a day. For bulbous plants harmful excess moisture. It is best to water them by directing a jet of water is not in the flesh, but closer to the walls of the pot or pan with water.
There are plants that are very sensitive to lack of moisture, such as Araucaria. When its branches are beginning to overhang, then no watering will not help. In winter, the dormant period the plant growth slows or stops, at which time the plants require less water and poured them much less, sometimes up to 2-3 times a month. On the contrary, in the spring and summer, when the plant during growth and flowering of watering is needed more frequently, sometimes up to 2-3 per week. With little peresushke young shoots, buds and flowers may suffer. More or less water the plants, depends on many factors. If we consider all cases that may affect watering, then they can bring in a comparison table:
Factors affecting the profusion or frequency of watering:
When more water:
Plants that are in growth stage
Plants with a large number of leaves
Plants with large broad leaves, evaporating much moisture
Healthy plants with strong root system
If in a pot of good drainage and large drainage holes
Plants in clay pots
In areas with dry warm air in winter
If the summer is dry, hot weather
When the water is less than:
Plants that are in a period of rest
Plants with few leaves
Plants with succulent fleshy leaves
Plants with small root system, especially if the roots of plants are affected by pests, diseases, or in consequence of not properly care
If the pot is no drainage holes
Plants in non-porous pot (plastic, metal, etc.)
Plants in cool or humid environment
If the summer is a rainy overcast weather
It is not that given in the comparative table cases are undisputed rule. Really need to take into account a number of factors to determine whether irrigation should be more or less. Violations of the irrigation water quality, its temperature would inevitably affect the plant. The more frequently this occurs, the crippled plant. Particularly sensitive plants may be killed at once, for example, by watering with cold water.
Violations of irrigation:
Signs of water scarcity Signs of excess water. Wilting of leaves, loss of turgor of leaves and shoots. In plants with soft, tender leaves (Vanka wet), they become lethargic and down. In plants with stiff, leathery leaves (Ficus, laurel, oleander and myrtle, etc.), they dry up and crumble (especially the old leaves fall off). Flowers and buds drop off or quickly fade. Wilting leaves are soft areas with signs of rot. Slower growth. Curdled, yellowed and faded leaves, brown leaf tips. Fall both old and young leaves. Mildew on flowers. There is a golden rule of watering the plants - it is better to water less, but more often than less often and for long.
Copious irrigation. Plants are watered immediately after drying earthen coma. Such irrigation is required by most tropical plants with thin delicate leaves (allokaziya, begonia, Fittonia, heliotrope), as well as some plants with leathery leaves (lemon, Ficus, oleander, the ivy)
Moderate watering. Plants are watered not immediately after drying clod of earth, but after a day or two, that is when the earth in the pot dries. This applies to plants with fleshy or silnoopushennymi leaves and stems (peperomiya, kolumneya), with thick roots and rhizomes (palms, dracaena, aspidistra, Araceae), as well as water-bearing tubers on the roots (asparagus, Chlorophytum, arrowroot) and bulbous. For some kinds of easy drying - a must in a period of rest, because it stimulates the bookmark, and maturation of flower buds (Zigokaktus, Cleve).
Rare watering. Plants are left dry for several days, weeks, months. This applies to the cacti and succulents, as well as deciduous tuberous and bulbous, having a rest period (Crinum, Gloxinia, gippeastrum, Caladium). Common rules for irrigation does not exist, each type of plant needs its own watering, read about it in the Encyclopedia section. with
What is the water pouring.
Water plants are best with a soft rain, river or pond water. Hard water (including wells), containing various salts should be avoided. Particularly intolerant of hard water Araceae, azaleas, orchids, paportnikovye, camellias. Well tolerated in hard water, watering the plants, which grow on calcareous soils. Keep in mind that rain water can be contaminated by industrial emissions, if you live in an industrial area or not far from it. Chlorinated water from the aqueduct advocate a minimum day, the chlorine time to disappear.
The water temperature should be, at least not lower than room temperature. This is especially important rule when watering tropical plants. Cacti recommended water over warm water. Watering plants with cold water can cause root rot, opadanie buds and even death of plants. On the contrary, watering plants with warm water in a cold room is also undesirable, since it will lead to premature growth of plants.
There is such a thing as the turgor of the plant. Turgor - a fullness of plant cells with water. If the plant is not enough water, leaves and branches droop, become sluggish, they talk about the loss of turgor. If the plant was dehydrated was not long, it is enough to thoroughly soak the soil with water to turgor recovered. Slow drying of the earth in the pots indicates a disease state or a weak plant growth. If the plant had been flooded, it is necessary to loosen the earth's surface, or remove the upper layer of soil to the roots and fill with fresh soil. If the land is in the pot are acidified, it is necessary to transplant the plant into a new land, pre-rinse the roots and remove them from the rotten parts.
In rooms with central heating and, consequently, dry air, watering is required more frequently than in a cool room. Frequency of watering also depends in which the pot "live" your plant. In a ceramic pot of soil dries out faster than plastic. In various literature suggests various ways of determining the needs of plants in water. This prostukivanie pot, unlike weight, etc. I've not used these techniques since it is inconvenient and easy to get wrong. First and foremost you can podryhlit upper layer of the earth if it is not cold and crumbles into powder, the plant needed to pour. However, this principle is not suitable for cacti and other succulents in the winter (for those plants with a separate chapter, and easier to use a calendar irrigation), and, if the room is cool and the plants will not fade, it is better to hold off watering. In general, over time, at fairly constant temperatures irrigation installed in a certain mode, for example, one day in spring, every day - a day in summer, two days in autumn, once a week in winter.
To soften hard water, it added wood ash at a rate of 3 g of ash per liter of water. You can also add fresh water peat, the rate of 100g per 10 liters of water. It is not always recommended to water the plants with water boiled, devoid of air. However, if other options to mitigate the water is not available, it is better to boil. If funds permit, it may be advisable to filter water for irrigation through household water filters. Can a water softener to use special chemical products that contain, for example, oxalic acid. However, it needs to know the exact degree of hardness of your water and accurately calculate the dose.
Sometimes the question arises whether one can use tap water with hot water, diluting its cold. In fact, the chemical composition of water from the hot and cold pipes are virtually the same, so if the water is soft enough, you can use such water. If the plant does not tolerate water stagnation at the roots or not tolerate excess soil moisture, then take care of good drainage and after irrigation drain water from the tray or saucer on which the pot.
If the land is in the pot dried up, it is recommended to omit a pot full at a time (5-10 minutes) in warm water (25-30 В° C), then give water to drain into the tray and emptied it. Watering crops can be carried out in various ways, their features are that would prevent the erosion of land and seeds in a flat dish. First, you can replace an ample sprinkling irrigation of land. Second, cover the earth in a flat dish with a cotton cloth and water through a cloth, and when the water is absorbed, remove the cloth. Third, put a flat dish with the seedlings in a container with water, and keep up until the land is not moisturize.
Automatic watering. To do this, take a moistened narrow gauze bandage, which is a little twist. One end of the bandage buried in the earth mound to a depth of 3-5 cm, while the other dipped in a container with water, located below the flower pot. In this case, the water level should be below the bottom of the pot. There is another way that is most often used for irrigation of wetland plants, such as feces or tsiperus. To do this, put the pot in the pan with water, and there is placed a water bottle turned upside down, with the edge of the bottle is installed near the water surface. Inverted bottle all the time keeps the water in the pan at the same level.