Artificial lighting of plants.
The difference in brightness in the summer and winter is so great that the plant is not enough natural light. In the summer the plants had pritenyat from the hot midday sun lace curtains, then with the onset of autumn has rearranged the plants as close as possible to the light, those plants that stood near the window to move the window sill, the ones that stood in the center of the room to place closer to the window. With that, if the summer on the southern window sill could be only plants transferring the sun in the winter on the windowsill of the same southern windows can be placed almost all the plants, as the autumn and winter the sun does not spoil their appearance frequently. Shading will be needed in just a particularly sunny days.
How do I know that the plants enough light? Some confuse the signs of lack of light and take them for the ones when the plant suffers from a clod of earth peresushki or excessive watering, but looking closer you can look more closely. In the first place with a lack of light begin to elongate shoots, new leaves are smaller than the old and the paint they were not so bright and saturated. In variegated forms of plant leaf color from lack of light becomes more monochromatic or very green. Begin to wither and fall off the lower leaves, apical buds do not develop. If it is a flowering plant, the flowers gradually fading bloom terminated or formed small, not beautiful flowers. The most common pattern - this is when the plant stops growing at all, the new shoots are formed, and old leaves begin to slowly wither and die. Of course, there are plants that are able to winter dormancy period, while they also have produced new shoots, but the older leaves die off in large numbers should not. Permutation of the plants closer to the light is not always possible, and not all plants will fit on a windowsill.
Most people are costing the artificial lighting of premises, ie, lighting chandeliers, lamps, sconces, etc. But not all plants take such a light, in addition incandescent lamps emit heat, which harms plants, if they are close. Therefore, if your plants enough light use such as fluorescent lamps. Coverage from them as close to natural light and they emit almost no heat. In addition, fluorescent lighting energy consumption is 4 times less than incandescent bulbs.
Now available for sale a variety of fluorescent lamps, so you have to just buy and hang. Distance, which is indicated for placement of plants - 30-60cm for decorative hardwoods and 15-30 for decorative and flowering - is very conditional. This means that if there is a lot of lights and across the room from this very light - just like on a clear day in summer, the plants do not need to be placed so close to the lamps. But if you have one - two lamps, all the premises they are clearly not enough, and the plants are placed as close as possible to the lamps, the above-stated distance. If the plant is located to the lamp of any one party, then it must be periodically rotated to crown remained uniform. If not enough light even for those plants that are on the window sill, you can hang the fluorescent light from both sides in the alcove window. Using a fluorescent lamp at 20 W, a distance of 30 cm from the decorative foliage plants such as ficus or tsissusa Benjamin medium size, is quite enough to compensate for the lack of daylight during autumn and winter.
Duration of artificial lighting is directly dependent on the natural. This is usually a few hours in the morning or evening hours. That is, the fluorescent lights will be included you in the morning, before you will need to go to work, and in the evening until the time when you go to bed. But in total this time should be about 6-8 hours. In a particularly dull days and 12 hours. If the day will be particularly sunny, fairly 3-4 hours of artificial light. To fall and winter blooming plants such as Saintpaulia, they need about 12-14 hours of good continuous illumination. The length of daylight will depend on the quality and quantity of flowers bloom. It should only take into account that most plants need a period of rest and prolonged forced flowering winter draining plants (except for winter-flowering plants). There is such a thing - svetokultura - a plant grown partly or wholly on artificial light.
What if there are no windows in the room at all. Many plants can be grown under artificial light, but one should, firstly, to use only fluorescent lights and, secondly, the right to comply with other modes of care - temperature and water. In addition, such facilities should be regularly aired. Unlike a plant breeding is that artificial lighting should be as close to natural - about 12-14 hours continuously spring - summer, 7-9 hours in winter. It is desirable to illuminate not only the one plant (I), and fully all premises. These conditions occur most frequently in the shops at the plant and other work areas where the ceiling hung a lot of fluorescent lamps and the room is well lit.
Mostly for the cultivation under artificial lighting suitable only plants that do not require direct sunlight. That is, it is suitable for growing plants on the eastern, western and northern windows. For placement in a room where there is no natural light, you can use the fern Nephrolepis, Tradescantia, dratsenu fringed, ficus elastic (rubber-), asparagus Sprenger, stsindapsus, philodendron, pandanus, peperomiyu, Monstera and dr. Of the flowering plants, Chinese rose, Gloxinia, pelargonium, uzambarskuyu violet. This is mostly hardy plants and not fanciful.
Insufficient amount of light causes the leaves are small, broken or discontinued their education in chlorophyll, the plant is severely stretched. If you are unable to provide a plant of natural light, has to resort to artificial lighting. Incandescent lamps have too much red, orange and infrared rays that accelerate vertical growth. Therefore, under incandescent plants stretch, and the heat generated from the leaves might be affected. Thus, an incandescent lamp is better not to use it.
Fluorescent lamps. They are most close to their range of natural lighting. Fluorescent lamps can now be purchased at any hardware store. Must have a lamp at a distance of approximately 15-30 cm for flowering plants and 30-60 cm for the decorative foliage plants. If the stalks are drawn out, then slide the light source closer. The use of artificial lighting, especially in the winter it is sometimes a must.
If a large plant, such as Monstera stands on the floor in a corner of the room, lighting on one side will not or will not be uniform if the lamp will be hung from the ceiling, it may be far from the plant. In this case, you can place one bulb in each of the walls, and plant them aside from a distance of 40-60 cm, while the lighting is more uniform and adequate.
Once the plant will be located in a room with artificial lighting, you need to watch him carefully the first 3-4 weeks, it will feel. Perhaps the light will increase (by adding a lamp) or bringing it closer to the plant. No heating of fluorescent lamps can accommodate them, even at 20 cm from the plant. There are cases where only artificial light grown cacti that bloom every year, or grapes, which fruited abundantly. Of course compliance with all other requirements in the care of each plant required.